Among the sorghum varieties, the highest “Fe” and “Zn” concentration (14.08 mg/100 and 6.484 mg/100 g, respectively) was found from Assossa-1. 70(11):3562-3577, 1992. Residue for N determination was obtained after the material was dried in a non-ventilated oven (105 °C) for 16 h. The B3 fraction was calculated as the difference between N insoluble in neutral detergent and N insoluble in acid detergent, which were determined by heating a 500 mg sample with neutral and acid detergent solution, respectively, for 1 h in an autoclave. The tannin was negatively correlated with ash, fat, moisture, and protein as shown in Table 4, but the correlation is not significant except protein. Silages of sweet sorghum cultivars BRS 506 and CMSXS 647 presented lower estimated lag time than grain and forage cultivars did, possibly because of the higher levels of WSC and NPN observed in these cultivars. [ Links ], SNIFFEN, C. J.; O’CONNOR, J. D.; VAN SOEST, P. J. [ Links ], LICITRA, G.; HERNANDEZ, T. M.; VAN SOEST, P. J. International Journal of Food Science & Technology 2010 , 45 (5) , 884-890. After the flasks were sealed, the gas present inside was released with a needle, and the time until gas pressure equalization occurred was computed. One-quarter cup of sorghum contains approximately 12% of your daily recommended value. Influence of polyethylene glycol on digestibility of the protein in high tannin grain. Here is a table of search results for sorghum; Food Name: Add to Tracking Add to Compare Create Recipe Add to My Foods. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Elseed, Eldaim and Amasaib (2007) reported that the stems of sorghum plants tend to contain lower levels of ash and silica. The residues in the bags of non-woven fabric tissue (pore size 100 µm - 100 g m-2) were then transferred to test tubes and analyzed for residual N. Fraction C was considered as N insoluble in acid detergent. grams cup tbsp. (2009) observed yield loss lower than 50% in the first crop and higher than 50% in the second crop, which was due to water deficiency during the grain filling phase. However, the relatively low WSC content for the silage of sweet sorghum cultivar CMSXS 647 in the first crop might be due to the high alcoholic and butyric fermentation inside the silo. Adding value to sorghum was the focus of the 2018 Sorghum U. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Lack of information about the qualitative behaviour of sorghum hinders the recommendation of different purpose sorghum cultivars. Using a dry oven to evaporate the last traces of the solvent at 103°C for 30 min, the flasks were later dried and cooled in a desiccator and reweighed. Our findings confirm that varieties of sorghum tested were not exposed to deterioration due to mold growth or any damage related to wetness. Dagem (364.24 kcal/g) followed by ESH-1 (360.41 kcal/g) and Macia (360.33 kcal/g) resulted in the highest food energy value. The lower CP levels observed in the sweet sorghum cultivars BRS 506 and CMSXS 647 (Table 4) were because of the higher height and lower proportion of panicles. The highest mineral content of P (367.965), Na (6.151), Mg (207.526), K (314.011), Ca (67.159), Fe (14.018), and Zn (6.484) as measured by mg/100 g was found from the varieties Macia, Abshir, Chiro, Birmash, Dagem, and Assossa-1 (Fe and Zn), respectively. In this study, the researchers recommend that low-income communities better use those selected varieties of sorghum to prevent the prevalence of childhood undernutrition since economic and contextual factors are strong determinants of child nutritional status [58–60]. Stalks and leaves are coated with a white wax, and the pith, or central portion, of the stalks of certain varieties is juicy and sweet. The highest value was recorded from a variety of ESH-3 and the lowest from Karimtams. The trial was conducted at the Plant Production Department, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste campus, and chemical analyses and in vitro incubation were performed at the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá campus. (4) Crude Fiber Content Determination. B. Desai, D. G. Inamdar, U. D. Chavan, and R. M. Naik, “Proximate composition and protein-fractions of some promising sorghum cultivars,”, N. J. Neucere and G. Sumrell, “Chemical composition of different varieties of grain sorghum,”, K. G. Duodu, J. R. N. Taylor, P. S. Belton, and B. R. Hamaker, “Factors affecting sorghum protein digestibility,”, K. G. Duodu, A. Nunes, I. Delgadillo et al., “Effect of grain structure and cooking on sorghum and maize in vitro protein digestibility,”, W. B. Johnson, W. S. Ratnayake, D. S. Jackson et al., “Factors affecting the alkaline cooking performance of selected corn and sorghum hybrids,”, A. Badigannavar, G. Girish, V. Ramachandran, and T. R. Ganapathi, “Genotypic variation for seed protein and mineral content among post-rainy season-grown sorghum genotypes,”, Y. Deosthale, V. Nagarajan, and K. V. Rao, “Some factors influencing the nutrient composition of sorghum grain,”, P. H. Selle, D. J. Cadogan, X. Li, and W. L. Bryden, “Implications of sorghum in broiler chicken nutrition,”, M. Choct and R. J. Hughes, “Chemical and physical characteristics of grains related to variability in energy and amino acid availability in poultry,”, M. Kondo, K. Kita, and H.-o. The varieties Miskir, Muyra-2, and ESH-4 have shown the highest protein content than the others. Machado et al. Different tannin concentration of sorghum was previously reported by [37, 38] who found 10 mg/100 g to 351 mg/100 g and 0.021 to 0.681%. 1. nutrItIon anD FertIlIser 1 seCtIon 5 SORGHUM fi- fl- February 2017 nutrition and fertiliser A balance of soil nutrients is essential for profitable yields. Delivery of the science-based knowledge so far has been through presentations at professional and producer meetings, and refereed journal publications. Besides, [39] in Tanzania reported a range of tannin content for 12 sorghum varieties which was found to be 2.18% to 5.76%. Thus, as part of the protein might not be broken down, the fraction A content based on the CP content should be lower in cultivars with higher proportions of grain. Subramanian and Jambunathan. Accordingly, in the [52] research report, the grain of sorghum which has greater than 5 mg/100 g and 3.70 mg/100 g of Fe and Zn, respectively, has been recommended as the potential for grain micronutrient enrichment. Sorghum is widely used in Ethiopia for human consumption, and it is considered one of the cheap sources of protein. Sorghum has greater drought tolerance, soil toxicities, and temperature variation than other cereals and requires minimal fertilizers for cultivation, thus playing a critical role for food security in some semiarid areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America [3]. Phosphorus was determined by UV-visible spectrophotometric method. Varieties of sorghum have their nutritional quality. Table 6: Kinetic parameters and in vitr The higher IVDDM observed in the second crop might be due to lower average values of iNDF levels observed during this crop period. It is a nutrient-rich grain that is high in soluble fiber and antioxidants and may reduce the risk of diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Amongst the B vitamins, concentrations of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin in sorghum were comparable to those in maize. For the first crop, seeding was performed on November 3, 2011, while for the second crop, seeding occurred on March 22, 2012. Journal of Dairy Science, 81(2):444-453, 1998. It is determined by methods of AOAC 923:03 [6]. The silage of forage sorghum cultivar BRS 655 has higher content of non-fiber carbohydrate and lower level of potentially digestible fiber, at both crop period, with high nutritional value. The experimental design was a randomized block with a split-plot arrangement and four replications. Abstract Malted sorghum-soy composite flour was developed the non-malted (day 0). 20p. Samples containing dishes were placed in the drying oven and dried for 1 h at 130°C/until the constant weight of the sample is maintained. Antioxidant-rich Certain types of sorghum grain are rich in antioxidants, which may help lower your risk of cancer, diabetes, heart disease and some neurological diseases. Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de milho nos períodos de safra e safrinha. [ Links ], KRISHNAMOORTHY, U. C. et al. This deficiency generally relates to diet consumption with low zinc or high in phytates. Nascimento et al. The health benefits possible through consumption of grain sorghum may offer potential cholesterol-lowering therapy to affected individuals. Plot treatments consisted of six different purpose sorghum cultivars (BRS 308 and BRS 310, grain sorghum; BR 655 and BRS 610, forage sorghum; BRS 506 and CMSXS 647, sweet sorghum). (9) Analysis of the Mineral Composition. In this study, the tannin content of the sorghum varieties was also included. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to profile the nutritional value, antinutritional value, and mineral contents of sorghum varieties grown in different agroecologies of Ethiopia. The calcium content was varied from 9.594 mg/100 g to 67.158 mg/100 g. Besides, the sensory of the food product may not be accepted due to bitterness characteristics. Enter your own food Set category preferences . The results of “P” in this experiment are consistent with reports of [41, 42] who reported “P” concentration values ranging from 1498 mg kg-1 to 3787.25 mg kg-1 and 2505.83 mg kg–1 to 3453 mg kg–1. The nutritional value of feed is associated with its chemical composition and the utilization level of nutrients. Special thanks go to Dr. Gashawbeza Ayalew for his effort in enriching this study while preparing the full write-up of the manuscript. (5) Protein Determination. Â. CV: Coefficient of variation. [ Links ], ROONEY, L. W.; PFLUGFELDER, R. L. Factors affecting starch digestibility with special emphasis on sorghum and corn. (2012) verified IVDDM of 54.5 and 53.9% for forage sorghum cultivar BRS 610 and BRS 655, respectively, which is lower than those observed in the present study, probably due to the higher NDF content verified by them. Zhang et al. In Ethiopia, sorghum is the third (3rd) most important staple cereal crop after teff and maize [4]. Such values were not observed for silages of sweet sorghum cultivars in both crops. Elke K. Arendt, Emanuele Zannini, in Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industries, 2013. These response patterns are similar to those observed in the present study. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluation cattle diets. The sample-containing tube was placed on a mechanical shaker for 24 h at room temperature, and then, the tube was centrifuged at 1000g for 5 minutes. The present findings are in agreement with [2, 30, 31] who reported crude protein content ranging from 3.25 to 14.53%, 7 to 15%, and 10.30 to 14.90%, respectively. The silages of sweet sorghum cultivars BRS 506 and CMSXS 647, and forage sorghum cultivar BRS 655 presented higher nutritional values. The higher the ash value of the varieties, the higher the total mineral content. The silages of sweet sorghum have higher in vitro digestibility of dry matter and revealed good quality for ruminant nutrition. Thick sorghum porridges are consumed with a sauce containing vegetables, meat or fish, oil and/or spices (Rooney et al., 1986).Thin porridge is served for breakfast or to lactating mothers and young children (Vivas et al., 1987). The in vitro procedure proposed by Tilley and Terry (1963) for determining the digestibility of food is the most widespread technique utilized in ruminant nutritional studies, owing to its low cost, quickness, and uniformity of results. In Africa, it is the second most important cereal in which around 300 million people depend on it as their daily consumptions (1). 70:3551-3581, 1992. Means with different superscripts are significantly different at. 23(11):1455-1461, 2010. The results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique by using the completely randomized design (CRD) method, and all pair-wise comparison tests were used for mean comparison, whereas the least significant difference [11] test was used for mean separation technique at . Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 33(4):1026-1033, 2009. [ Links ], DAVIES, D. R. et al. The nutritional value of sorghum was assumed to be 85 to 90% of the total feeding value of corn. The test was performed by the Kjeldahl method of [6]. 12.9 grams fiber. However, in terms of requirements, sorghum is an attractive alternative to corn because it is more adapted to drought and low soil fertility (Borba et al., 2012). The white brush of the Llano Hill Country ensure that our bees make some of the best and sweetest honey in Texas. Sorghum is used in various ways in our country; the grain is used for human foods such as injera, bread, porridge, Nifro, infant food, syrup, and local beverage known as “Tella” and “Arekie.” And also, the leaf and stalk are used for animal feed, and further, the stalks are used for the construction of houses and fences and as fuelwood. where is the weight of the porcelain crucible and sample before ashing, is the weight of the porcelain crucible containing ash, and is the weight of the sample. Regarding feed digestibility, silages of sweet sorghum cultivars BRS 506 and CMSXS 647 presented higher IVDDM than the other cultivars (Table 6), probably because of the higher level of WSC and lower content of iNDF. Four (4) grams of well-homogenized sorghum flour was measured and put into a clean crucible of predetermined weight. Wisconsin and Minnesota Cooperative Extension, University of Wisconsin, Madison, and University of Minnesota, St. Paul. For ensiling, forage was chopped to approximately 20 mm in length using a stationary forage cutter. It provides dietary fiber by 48% of the recommended daily value. 72(11):2980-2991, 1994. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. “Mg” concentration of this study varied between 207.53 mg/100 g and 62.09 mg/100 g. 76(9):1063-1073, 1993. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 3(10):1141-1145, 2007. In: Alternative field crops manual. In Brazil, grain sorghum cultivars are usually recommended for high quality silage production because of their higher proportion of grains, whereas forage sorghum cultivars are recommended for high dry matter (DM) yield. During fermentation inside the silo, a portion of the protein is converted into NPN by proteolysis (Davies et al., 1998). In the United States, more sorghum is used for biofuel and animal feed than for human consumption, but this percentage is quickly rising with the interest in sorghum as a gluten-free replacement for wheat. The weather conditions of decreasing rainfall (Figure 1) during this crop period might have decreased the plant grain filling, which reduced the proportion of NFC in grain sorghum cultivars BRS 308 and BRS 310 compared to the first crop. Sorghum is a crop that stands out as an alternative to corn due to lower soil fertility demand and increased tolerance to drought. Zinc concentration varied from 0.698 mg/100 g to 6.484 mg/100 g. Sodium “Na” concentration varied from 2.229 to 6.151 mg/100 g which is in agreement with the report of [41] that reported “Na” concentration varying from 11.5 to 54.38 mg/kg, 6.3 to 7.0 mg/100 g, and 5.83 to 6.18 mg/100 g, respectively. The high NDF content for silage of sweet sorghum cultivars BRS 506 and CMSXS 647 in the first crop (Table 2) was probably because of the higher DM loss within the silo owing to high ethanol and butyric acid production. Food crops having high antinutritional content may not be good for food consumption, due to its negative impact on nutrient availability and digestibility unless processed very well. The lowest concentration of “P” was observed in Melkam varieties (112.554 mg/100 g). Varieties also differed significantly for crude fiber, protein, and carbohydrate with values ranging from 1655 to 8.5865%, 8.201 to 16.476%, and 67.558 to 76.413%, respectively. Agronomic and bromatological characteristics of vegetative components of forage sorghum. The preparation of the samples for in vitro incubations was carried out by taking approximately 500 mg of sample material (450 mg DM) and placing in glass flasks with a total volume of 120 mL, in duplicate. Iron deficiency is mainly caused by low intake of heme iron and vitamin C. Iron contributes to the formation of heme enzymes and other Fe-containing enzymes that are important for energy production, immune defense, and thyroid function whereas zinc (Zn) is contributing as a good reducing agent. 63:1607-1623, 1986. The aim of this study is to document the production and use . Revista Brasileira de Milho e Sorgo, 12(2):164-182, 2013. So, varieties such as Abuare, Lalo, Gambella-1107, and Karimtams are recommended for product development. Available in:
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